Histopathology of Vestibulodynia in Pre- and Postmenopause

Mark Spitzer, MD, FACOG


The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) 

In This Article


Leclair CM, Goetsch MF, Li H, Morgan TK. Histopathologic characteristics of menopausal vestibulodynia. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;122(4):787-793.

This histologic study found that postmenopausal vestibulodynia looks similar to premenopausal vestibulodynia, but with much more pronounced chronic inflammation and greater mast cell infiltration. All 21 post-menopausal women in the study had secondary vestibulodynia, and in most (15/21), symptoms were related to a drop in estrogen. However, there were no significant histologic differences between tissues from those using estrogen supplementation and those who did not.