The management of axial symptoms and cognitive decline represents the main challenge in the treatment of advanced PD. In the next years, attention will be focused on the attempt to clarify controversies concerning potential promising targets, as well as the best site to stimulate within the PPN area. Another breakthrough might be represented by innovation in delivering stimulation, such as adaptive paradigms of stimulation, in which neural activity might be used as a real-time feedback to adapt stimulation. In animal models, this paradigm of stimulation has been shown to be more advantageous than traditional non-adaptive stimulation.
Expert Rev Neurother. 2013;13(12):1319-1328. © 2013 Expert Reviews Ltd.