Breast Milk: Proactive Immunomodulation and Mucosal Protection Against Viruses and Other Pathogens

Chiara Cerini; Grace M Aldrovandi


Future Virology. 2013;8(11):1127-1134. 

In This Article

Future Perspective

Due to the pressing need to control infectious diseases (such as rubella, measles, tetanus, HB and seasonal influenza), routine vaccination of pregnant mothers is recommended. However, many questions remain about both the benefits and/or side effects of maternal immunization, and further studies are needed. Areas for inquiry include examining whether different types of vaccines and routes of administration influence breast milk antibody production, and examining whether time and type of maternal immunization influences the infant's active immune responses.