Urogynecological Risk Assessment in Postmenopausal Women

Niladri Sengupta; Timothy Hillard


Expert Rev of Obstet Gynecol. 2013;8(6):625-637. 

In This Article


The menopause heralds a time of significant change in the hormonal milieu of a woman. This may present both physical and emotional challenges to the clinician, encompassing a wide time frame before and after the onset of menopause. While some symptoms are quite specific to menopause, some are not. The most commonly encountered problems in the early postmenopausal period in the urogynecological setting are: utero-vaginal/pelvic organ prolapse (POP), urinary incontinence (UI), recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) and uro-genital atrophy. This article reviews the presentation, assessment and initial management of these problems. A comprehensive review of the management of these conditions is beyond the scope of this article.