The Evolving History of Influenza Viruses and Influenza Vaccines

Claude Hannoun


Expert Rev Vaccines. 2013;12(9):1085-1094. 

In This Article


Eighty years after the isolation of the first influenza virus, influenza vaccines have been remarkably persistent and have evolved to respond to the natural evolution of the influenza viruses. Over this period, the history of influenza vaccination has been influenced by evolution in a wider sense:

  • The technological evolution, in terms of the manufacturing processes for the vaccines;

  • The virus antigenic and ecological evolution resulting in the need to adapt the vaccine composition annually to ensure it remains effective.

Ongoing research and development efforts are still constantly needed to enable us to develop and adapt well-tailored influenza vaccines capable of reducing the influenza burden of disease in all age groups.