Cynthia B. Evans, MD, FACOG, NCMP


The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) 

In This Article


Miyazaki Y, Hayashi K, Mizunuma H, et al. Smoking habits in relation to reproductive events among Japanese women: Findings of the Japanese Nurses' Health Study. Prev Med. Aug 9, 2013. [Epub ahead of print] Level of evidence: II-3.

This analysis of data from the Japanese Nurses' Health Study confirms previous studies and a meta-analysis published in Menopause in 2012 concluding that smoking is associated with earlier menopause. In this study, not only was current smoking before menopause associated with earlier menopause, it was also associated in a dose-dependent manner. In ex-smokers, however, a history of premenopausal smoking was not significantly associated with menopause onset.