Effects of Habitual Coffee Consumption on Cardiometabolic Disease, Cardiovascular Health, and All-Cause Mortality

James H. O'Keefe, MD; Salman K. Bhatti, MD; Harshal R. Patil, MD; James J. DiNicolantonio, PHARMD; Sean C. Lucan, MD, MPH, MS; Carl J. Lavie, MD


J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;62(12):1043-1051. 

In This Article


The currently available evidence on CV effects related to habitual coffee consumption is largely reassuring. Coffee can be included as part of a healthy diet for the general public and also for those with increased CV risk or CV disease. Those with dyslipidemia may consider brewed and filtered coffee as opposed to preparations made from boiling beans without filtering. While many of coffee's benefits probably derive from its caffeine content, decaffeinated coffee seems to offer some health benefits too and may be a reasonable option for those who experience uncomfortable effects from caffeine stimulation. Drinkers of caffeinated coffee in particular might be advised to ensure adequate calcium consumption from dietary sources to guard against potential adverse outcomes related to bone health. Finally, it is possible that individuals who consume coffee differ in other important dietary and sociological aspects from the nonconsumers. Therefore, the possibility that coffee consumption may be acting as a surrogate marker of some other dietary or lifestyle risk factor cannot be fully excluded.