Effects of Habitual Coffee Consumption on Cardiometabolic Disease, Cardiovascular Health, and All-Cause Mortality

James H. O'Keefe, MD; Salman K. Bhatti, MD; Harshal R. Patil, MD; James J. DiNicolantonio, PHARMD; Sean C. Lucan, MD, MPH, MS; Carl J. Lavie, MD


J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;62(12):1043-1051. 

In This Article

Coffee Consumption and Mortality

In the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I, 6,594 participants 32 to 86 years of age with no history of CV disease at baseline were prospectively followed for 8.8 years. Coffee intake of participants who were 65 years of age or older exhibited a dose-response protective effect whereby increasing habitual consumption of coffee was associated with lower RRs of adverse CV events and heart disease mortality (Fig. 6).[47]

Figure 6.

Coffee Over Age 65
Relative risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and heart disease mortality by level of caffeinated beverage intake in individuals 65 years of age and older. Error bars indicate 95% confidence interval (CI).
Adapted from Greenberg et al.47

In another study, 41,736 men and 86,214 women with no history of CV disease or cancer at baseline were followed for 18 years (men) and 24 years (women) to assess the association between coffee consumption and CV mortality, cancer, and all-cause mortality. An inverse association between coffee consumption and all-cause mortality was seen mainly due to a moderately reduced risk of CV disease mortality and was independent of caffeine intake; decaffeinated coffee was also associated with a small reduction in all-cause and CV disease mortality.[48]

In the recent National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, 229,119 men and 173,141 women were followed from 1995 through 2008 to examine the association of coffee drinking with subsequent total and cause-specific mortality. Participants were 50 to 71 years of age at baseline and were excluded if they had a personal history of cancer, heart disease, or stroke. Although the unadjusted risk of death was increased in coffee drinkers, coffee drinkers were also more likely to smoke. After adjustment for tobacco smoking and other potential confounders, men who drank ≥6 cups of coffee per day had a 10% lower risk of death and women had a 15% lower risk, irrespective of whether they drank caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee. Inverse associations were observed for deaths due to heart disease, respiratory disease, stroke, injuries and accidents, diabetes, and infections, but not for deaths due to cancer.[25]