Hey Grandma, Let's Get You Checked for Hep C

Charles P. Vega, MD


August 30, 2013

In This Article

Limitations and Benefits of Age-Based Screening


The authors identify the limitations of the new recommendations. Although age-based screening should identify more patients with HCV infection, they admit that this method may be less efficient than risk-based screening. The potential harms of screening include stigmatization, but also the more tangible and serious complications of the diagnostic work-up of liver disease.

The rate of major complications after percutaneous liver biopsy ranges between 0.09% and 2.3%, with a trend toward higher complication rates in older studies.[5] Use of ultrasonography to guide liver biopsy may reduce the risk for complications by 30%. However, the authors of the current review note that overall use of liver biopsy is declining with greater reliance on laboratory testing alone to guide treatment. This will reduce the potential harms of screening for HCV infection.

A more serious complication of a large screening campaign for HCV infection among older adults is overdiagnosis, meaning the discovery of infections which would have no impact on the course of the patient's life. Up to 25% of acute infections with HCV may be cleared and do not progress to chronic HCV infection.[6] Despite the high numbers of patients with chronic HCV infection, only 10%-15% develop cirrhosis. The mean interval from infection to cirrhosis is a matter of debate but is approximately 20 years, and patients without other cirrhosis risk factors, such as chronic alcohol misuse or hepatitis B infection, are less likely to develop cirrhosis.

Benefits of Screening

Nonetheless, acquiring HCV infection at an age older than 40 years is also associated with a higher risk for cirrhosis, making overdiagnosis less of an issue among older adults.[6] In addition, treatment of chronic HCV infection has resulted in significant improvements in morbidity and mortality outcomes.

In research from 5 large tertiary hospitals in which 530 patients were followed for over 8 years for mortality outcomes, patients with a sustained virologic response (SVR) experienced a 74% reduction in all-cause mortality and a 94% reduction in the risk for liver-related mortality or transplantation compared with patients who did not have an SVR to anti-HCV therapy.[7] The mean age of participants in this research was 48 years, meaning that many patients included in the new screening recommendation might receive these substantial benefits of anti-HCV treatment.

Furthermore, treatment of chronic HCV infection reduces the risk for hepatocellular carcinoma. In a meta-analysis of 18 studies, SVR reduced the relative risk for hepatocellular carcinoma to 0.24 compared with no SVR.[8] SVR was similarly effective in reducing the risk for hepatocellular carcinoma in an analysis confined to patients with advanced liver disease.

The new screening methods also appear to be cost-effective. In an analysis of the proposed birth-cohort HCV screening plan proposed by the USPSTF, researchers found that screening would result in over 800,000 new cases of HCV infection identified, at the cost of $2874 per case.[9] Subsequent treatment for HCV would result in costs of $15,000-$35,000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained, a favorable sum compared with other health interventions. In fact, another analysis found that age-based screening for HCV was more cost-effective than risk factor-based screening, although the authors stress that this is true only if all new cases receive standard triple therapy for their infection.[10]

Adding to the PCP Tasks

Primary care physicians are asked to do many things. The average number of patient requests of physicians per clinic visit was 5.5 in one study, and this information is now 14 years old.[11] These requests exclude other important elements of the office visit, such as addressing severe anemia or demonstrating empathy and patience when the patient bursts into tears upon being asked, "So, how's it going?"

Primary care physicians are also the stewards of preventive healthcare, which is a wonderful opportunity and distinct challenge. We need to get screening tests ordered on time for the right patients, and practice shared decision-making each step of the way as we do so.

At first glance, the new screening recommendations from the USPSTF may seem superfluous. However, after reviewing the epidemiology, treatment outcomes, and even cost-effectiveness data, this screening certainly appears to be prudent and beneficial. It should be embraced by primary care physicians. It should also evolve. As the demographics of HCV infection shift, the age-based screening approach will almost certainly need to change as well. An eventual move away from HCV screening will indicate a great victory for the public's health.


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