Preventing or Reversing Immunosenescence

Can Exercise Be an Immunotherapy?

Adriana L de Araújo; Léia CR Silva; Juliana Ruiz Fernandes; Gil Benard


Immunotherapy. 2013;5(8):879-893. 

In This Article

B Cells & Their Alterations

The impairment of immune protection against new antigenic stimuli and the decrease in the response to immunizations verified in elderly individuals can be associated with a decrease in antibody specificity, affinity and isotype switch with aging.[89] According to Ongrádi et al. quantitative changes include decreases in immunoglobulin levels and, qualitatively, decreased number and activity of B-cell populations and the antibody repertoire. The major consequence is an impaired capacity to mount strong humoral immune responses.[90]

Another characteristic of immunosenescence of the B-cell compartment is the decreased bone marrow production of naive B cells, provoking an imbalance in the naive/mature B-cell ratio in the elderly, which, in turn, leads to the clonal expansion of some specific B cells and limitation of the repertoire diversity. A consequence of the deficiency in isotype switching is the accumulations of B IgM+ cells and the loss of IgG secretory cells. In addition, an increase in the IgDCD27IgG+ subpopulation expressing reduced levels of CD40, CD80 and HLA-DR, suggestive of exhausted memory cells, has been reported, indicating that these cells have a reduced capacity to present antigens.[91]