Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Physiology and Clinical Symptoms of Menopause

Gloria Richard-Davis, MD, FACOG; Melissa Wellons, MD


Semin Reprod Med. 2013;31(5):380-386. 

In This Article


The US demographics change rapidly and dramatically. The number of minority women in this country continues to rise exponentially. It is imperative that providers have a fund of knowledge in understanding the ethnic and cultural differences in how a woman experiences menopause. The impact of menopause has far reaching effects on quality of life and disease management in the aging population. Studies, such as SWAN, provide a good foundation for understanding ethnic and cultural differences. However, given the limitations, of even SWAN, more research is needed in this key area to better understand the difference. Broader studies including minority populations from across the nation, not regionalized selections, are needed. This would enhance the health-care provider's ability to provide patient-centered, individualized care to this rapidly increasing population.