Etiology, Diagnosis, and Therapeutic Management of Granuloma Annulare

An Update

Laura A. Thornsberry; Joseph C. EnglishIII


Am J Clin Dermatol. 2013;14(4):279-290. 

In This Article

6 Conclusion

GA is a common disease encountered by dermatologists. GA has an unknown etiology and a lack of evidence-based medicine available for the treatment of this condition. The diagnosis of GA is best made with skin biopsy to confirm the histological features of the disease. Further workup for underlying diseases such as DM, malignancy, thyroid disease, systemic infection, and dyslipidemia may be considered in patients with generalized annular, disseminated papular, or atypical GA. The majority of reported treatments in the literature are based on case reports and small retrospective studies, and in the future there is a need for randomized controlled trials to better establish the most efficacious treatments and optimal treatment regimens. Treatment of generalized GA should be individualized for the patient on the basis of blood evaluations, comorbidities, drug interactions, compliance, adverse effect profiles, proximity to clinic, and reproductive status.