Etiology, Diagnosis, and Therapeutic Management of Granuloma Annulare

An Update

Laura A. Thornsberry; Joseph C. EnglishIII


Am J Clin Dermatol. 2013;14(4):279-290. 

In This Article

1 Introduction

The term "granuloma annulare" (GA) was introduced by Radcliffe-Crocker in 1902; however, over a century has passed and the etiology remains elusive and there is a lack of evidence-based medicine available for the treatment of this disease.[1] The aim of this evidence-based review is to provide an update on the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of GA with a focus on the literature from the twenty-first century.

Biomedical literature searches of articles written in English were performed using the search engine at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center with the terms "granuloma annulare (GA); GA etiology; GA diagnosis; GA treatment; disseminated GA; subcutaneous GA; perforating GA; GA diabetes mellitus (DM); GA malignancy; GA thyroid disease; and GA infection." Full-text articles and abstracts of articles were obtained, and the available reference lists were examined for additional relevant articles, which were then directly searched for on using the information from the citation.