Nutrient Supplementation

Improving Male Fertility Fourfold

Cesar Mora-Esteves, MD; David Shin, MD


Semin Reprod Med. 2013;31(4):293-300. 

In This Article


Pentoxifylline is a competitive nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor that raises intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate and reduces inflammation by inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-alpha and leukotriene synthesis. It has been shown to reduce ROS,[82,83] and preserve sperm motility in vitro[84] and improve semen parameters in vivo.[85,86] Tesarik et al demonstrated that in unselected asthenospermic patients, pentoxifylline improved sperm motion characteristics, but did not increase the percentage of motile spermatozoa.[87] Other investigators have studied the effects of in vitro and in vivo pentoxifylline treatment on sperm motion parameters in select asthenospermic patients whose spermatozoa produced detectable steady state levels of ROS. Treatment decreased ROS formation and preserved sperm motion parameters in vitro. Orally administered pentoxifylline had no effect at a low dosage, whereas a high dosage was seen to increase sperm motility and some sperm motion parameters without altering sperm fertilizing ability.[88]