Update: Severe Respiratory Illness Associated With Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV)

Worldwide, 2012-2013

Paul A. Gastañaduy, MD

Disclosures

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2013;62(23):480-483. 

In This Article

Introduction

CDC continues to work in consultation with the World Health Organization (WHO) and other partners to better understand the public health risk posed by the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), formerly known as novel coronavirus, which was first reported to cause human infection in September 2012.[1–4] The continued reporting of new cases indicates that there is an ongoing risk for transmission to humans in the area of the Arabian Peninsula. New reports of cases outside the region raise concerns about importation to other geographic areas. Nosocomial outbreaks with transmission to health-care personnel highlight the importance of infection control procedures. Recent data suggest that mild respiratory illness might be part of the clinical spectrum of MERS-CoV infection, and presentations might not initially include respiratory symptoms. In addition, patients with comorbidities or immunosuppression might be at increased risk for infection, severe disease, or both. Importantly, the incubation period might be longer than previously estimated. Finally, lower respiratory tract specimens (e.g., sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial wash, or tracheal aspirate) should be collected in addition to nasopharyngeal sampling for evaluation of patients under investigation. An Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) was recently issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to allow for expanded availability of diagnostic testing in the United States.

As of June 7, 2013, a total of 55 laboratory-confirmed cases have been reported to WHO. Illness onsets have occurred during April 2012 through May 29, 2013 (Figure 1). All reported cases were directly or indirectly linked to one of four countries: Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Jordan, and the United Arab Emirates (Figure 2). Most cases (40) were reported by Saudi Arabia. Four countries, the United Kingdom (UK), Italy, France, and Tunisia, have reported cases in returning travelers and their close contacts.[5–8] Ill patients from Qatar and the United Arab Emirates have been transferred to hospitals in the UK and Germany. To date, no cases have been reported in the United States. WHO and CDC have not issued any travel advisories at this time; updated information for travelers to the Arabian Peninsula is available at http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices/watch/coronavirus-arabian-peninsula.

Figure 1.

Number of confirmed cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) (N = 55) reported as of June 7, 2013, to the World Health Organization, by month of illness onset — worldwide, 2012–2013
* Case count for March assumes that the two cases included in the March 23, 2013 WHO announcement had symptom onset during March 2013.
† Case count for May 2013 assumes that six recently reported cases had symptom onset during May 2013.

Figure 2.

Confirmed cases* of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) (N =55) reported as of June 7, 2013, to the World Health Organization, and history of travel from the Arabian Peninsula or neighboring countries within 14 days of illness onset — worldwide, 2012–2013
* Dots representing the cases are not geographically representative of the exact location of the residence of the patient.

The median age of patients is 56 years (range: 2–94 years), with a male-to-female ratio of 2.6 to 1.0. All patients were aged ≥24 years, except for two children, one aged 2 years and one aged 14 years. All patients had respiratory symptoms during their illness, with the majority experiencing severe acute respiratory disease requiring hospitalization. Thirty-one of the 55 patients are reported to have died (case-fatality rate: 56%).[5–8] Two cases in Tunisia, in siblings whose father's illness was a probable case, and a case from the UK, were in persons with mild respiratory illnesses who were not hospitalized.[5,9] Information was not available for all cases; however, several patients had accompanying gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain and diarrhea, and many cases occurred among persons with chronic underlying medical conditions or immunosuppression, as reported to WHO.[5,9]

The original source(s), route(s) of transmission to humans, and the mode(s) of human-to-human transmission have not been determined. Eight clusters (42 cases) have been reported by six countries (France, Italy, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and the UK)[5] among close contacts or in health-care settings and provide clear evidence of human-to-human transmission of MERS-CoV. The first documented patient-to-patient nosocomial transmission in Europe was confirmed recently in France.[10] The first French patient, a man aged 64 years with a history of renal transplantation, became ill on April 22, 2013, within 1 week after returning from Dubai. He presented with fever and diarrhea. Pneumonia was diagnosed incidentally on radiographic imaging, and he subsequently died with severe respiratory disease. The secondary case is in a man aged 51 years on long-term corticosteroids who shared a room with the index patient during April 26–29 and who remains hospitalized on life support. The incubation period for the secondary case was estimated to be 9–12 days; this is longer than the previously estimated 1–9 days.[10] A larger cluster, consisting of 25 cases including 14 deaths, ongoing since April 2013 in the region of Al-Ahsa in eastern Saudi Arabia, also has included cases linked to a health-care facility.[5] Cases have included health-care personnel and family contacts. An additional five cases, not linked to the cluster in Al-Ahsa, were reported recently in another region of eastern Saudi Arabia.[5] Thus far, no evidence of sustained community transmission beyond the clusters has been reported in any country.

In some instances, sampling with nasopharyngeal swabs did not detect MERS-CoV by polymerase chain reaction (PCR); however, MERS-CoV was detected by PCR in lower respiratory tract specimens from these same patients. In the two patients reported by France, nasopharyngeal specimens were weakly positive or inconclusive, whereas bronchoalveolar lavage and induced sputum were positive.[10]

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