Hormones and Dry Eye Syndrome

An Update on What We Do and Don't Know

Eduardo Melani Roch; Flavio Mantelli, Luis Fernando Nominato; Stefano Bonini


Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2013;24(4):348-355. 

In This Article


We describe here the current knowledge base pertaining to the role of some hormonal imbalances in DES initiation and progression. Clinical findings and pathophysiological mechanisms confirm the associations between diabetes mellitus, estrogen level declines, and thyroid gland diseases and DES. Very promising preliminary results obtained in several animal models are described for employing gene therapy as a novel alternative to improve treatment of hormone related DES.