Bret S. Stetka, MD; Christoph U. Correll, MD


May 21, 2013

In This Article

Neurodevelopmental Disorders

The Change

In DSM-5, "mental retardation" has a new name: "intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder)," the first section in the neurodevelopmental disorders chapter. The change is due to a gradual call for destigmatization among clinicians, the public, and advocacy groups. Also included in this chapter are communication disorders -- formerly phonological disorder and stuttering -- which include language disorder, speech sound disorder, childhood-onset fluency disorder, and a new condition characterized by impaired social verbal and nonverbal communication called social (pragmatic) communication disorder. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), specific learning disorder, and motor disorders (eg, Tourette disorder) are also included, as is the new DSM-5 diagnosis, autism spectrum disorder (see page 4).

The Implications

This category groups conditions with onset in childhood and adolescence that are thought to be due to abnormal neural circuit development, causing various dysfunctions in cognition, learning, communication, and behavior. The grouping of these conditions hopefully will urge clinicians to try to differentiate them from each other and consider differential diagnoses and comorbidities more carefully.