Intestinal Biopsy is not Always Required to Diagnose Celiac Disease

A Retrospective Analysis of Combined Antibody Tests

Annemarie Bürgin-Wolff; Buser Mauro; Hadziselimovic Faruk


BMC Gastroenterol. 2013;13(19) 

In This Article


There is no single test — not even jejunal biopsy — that can conclusively diagnose or exclude CD in every individual. Therefore, we propose the following two-step diagnostic procedure: The first step is the combined, simultaneous determination of IgA anti-dpgli and IgG anti-dpgli + IgA anti-tTG and/or EMA. The vast majority of patients will have either three positive or three negative results, obviating the need for a biopsy. The second step, jejunal biopsy, should be performed only in patients with discordant antibody results (i.e., in patients whose CD status cannot be classified by antibody tests alone). In any case, effects of a gluten-free diet must be controlled.