Aquaporin 4: A Player in Cerebral Edema and Neuroinflammation

Andrew M Fukuda; Jerome Badaut

Disclosures

J Neuroinflammation. 2012;9(279) 

In This Article

Abstract and Introduction

Abstract

Neuroinflammation is a common pathological event observed in many different brain diseases, frequently associated with blood brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and followed by cerebral edema. Neuroinflammation is characterized with microglia activation and astrogliosis, which is a hypertrophy of the astrocytes. Astrocytes express aquaporin 4, the water channel protein, involved in water homeostasis and edema formation. Aside from its function in water homeostasis, recent studies started to show possible interrelations between aquaporin 4 and neuroinflammation. In this review the roles of aquaporin 4 in neuroinflammation associated with BBB disruption and cerebral edema will be discussed with recent studies in the field.

Introduction

The purpose of this review is not to discuss neuroinflammation mechanisms or an extensive review of aquaporin 4 (AQP4), for there are numerous reviews covering these two topics independently. Rather, we address the question whether AQP4 is a common player between edema and neuroinflammation by reviewing the recent literature in the field. In recent years, AQP4 has been associated with neuroinflammation in chronic and acute brain diseases.[1–12] Since AQP4 is mostly expressed on the astrocytes, and because neuroinflammation is characterized by both phenotypic changes of resting astrocytes to astrogliosis and microglial activation, we believe that tackling this question can lead to a better understanding of many brain diseases.

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