Adverse Effects of Homeopathy

A Systematic Review of Published Case Reports and Case Series

P. Posadzki; A. Alotaibi; E. Ernst


Int J Clin Pract. 2012;66(12):1178-1188. 

In This Article


Electronic literature searches were conducted in January 2012 to identify case series (CS) and case reports (CR) of AEs associated with homeopathy in human patients. The following electronic databases were used: MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINHAL and ISI. Details of the search strategy are presented in the Appendix. In addition, our own extensive department files were hand-searched for further articles.

No restrictions of language or time of publication were imposed. To be included, CS or CR had to pertain to AEs associated with the use of any type of homeopathic treatment in human patients. Data from spontaneous reporting systems were included as well. We also included reports where harm was not because of a homeopathic remedy, but was associated with the use of homeopathy as a replacement of conventional treatments. Information from the included CS or CRs were extracted according to predefined criteria and assessed by two independent reviewers. Causality was estimated based on the description provided by the authors of the primary articles. Any disagreements were settled through discussion.