Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections

Diagnosis and Treatment

Maria Bitsori; Emmanouil Galanakis


Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2012;10(10):1153-1164. 

In This Article

Urinary Tract Infection Morbidity

Urinary tract infection (UTI) affects approximately 7–8% of girls and 2% of boys during the first 8 years of life, thus being the most common serious bacterial infection in childhood.[1–3] UTI-related kidney scarring has long been considered as the cause of substantial long-term morbidity in the form of hypertension and impaired renal function, and consequently children with UTI have been aggressively treated with intravenous antibiotics and have extensively undergone invasive imaging.[4] More recently, antenatal ultrasonography has revealed the importance of developmental factors in renal damage and downgraded the role of infection in scar formation.[4] Large registries of children with chronic renal insufficiency confirmed that renal hypodysplasia is more important than acquired scarring as a causative factor of failing kidney function.[5,6] However, UTI remain a quite common infection in childhood that can be easily missed, and inflammatory changes in the context of infection are still held to have a role in scarring at early ages.[7]