The Pharmacoeconomics of Managing Acute Agitation in the Emergency Department

What Do We Know and How Do We Approach It?

Esther W Chan; David McD Taylor; Jonathan C Knott; Danny Liew; David CM Kong


Expert Rev Pharmacoeconomics Outcomes Res. 2012;12(5):589-595. 

In This Article

Sensitivity Analyzes

Sensitivity analyses allow for estimations of the extent to which uncertainty and variation in the data may affect the study outcomes and are an important component of pharmacoeconomic analyses.[24,35,36] The uncertain parameters may be varied over a chosen range of values either one at a time (one-way) or in combination (multiway). Alternatively, it may involve the identification of the point where the study conclusions change over a range of values (threshold analysis).[35] Uncertainty analysis may also be conducted based on a large number of Monte Carlo simulations (i.e., probabilistic sensitivity analysis), which vary parameters simultaneously across a plausible and predefined range of values.[36,37] The choice of the range over which the parameters are varied should be explicitly stated and be clinically realistic. Sensitivity analyses are an important aspect of pharmacoeconomic analyses as they are assessments of the robustness of the study conclusions. The factors impacting upon any observed differences between the interventions are identified in this final step of the evaluation.