Detection and Management of Pediatric Conditions That may Affect Male Fertility

Geolani W. Dy, MD; Melissa Rust, MSPAC; Pamela Ellsworth, MD, FAAP, FACS


Urol Nurs. 2012;32(5):237-248. 

In This Article

Abstract and Introduction


Conditions affecting male fertility may be detected in childhood. Affected children and adolescents and their parents are often anxious and concerned when infertility is discussed. Urology nurses and midlevel providers play a key role in the education and counseling of the patient and family. An awareness of the more common conditions, including presentation, evaluation, and management, is critical.
1. Discuss the pediatric diagnoses that may affect future male fertility.
2. List the chromosomal causes of male infertility.
3. Explain fertility preservation treatment options for male patients diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome.
4. Describe the significance of the absence of the vas deferens as an indicator of cystic fibrosis.
5. Discuss the structural anomalies of the testes in male pediatric patients that may contribute to future infertility.


Couple infertility is related to male factors in 50% of cases (Jungwirth et al., 2012). In adult males, the cause often relates to obstruction of the male genital tract or decreased or absent sperm production or function. While the vast majority of infertility evaluations are performed for adults, several conditions affecting male fertility may be detected in childhood, including congenital, structural, and traumatic etiologies (see Table 1).