Many viruses can infect the CNS and cause serious meningoencephalitis, which can be fatal. To ensure the most appropriate methods are used for the treatment of various forms of viral encephalitis, it is critically important to make a correct and timely diagnosis and to initiate the best treatment without delay. Here, we have summarized the current most reliable neuroimaging methods for the detection of brain lesions associated with viral infections. DWI and ADC mapping are now excellent methods for both detecting and prognosticating most viral infections of the CNS, although data on the relationship between viral loads and clinical signs and neuroimaging findings are now scarcely available. Therefore, we should accumulate neuroimaging findings from further patients with various types of viral encephalitis and examine these relationships in these patients.
Future Virology. 2012;7(9):901-909. © 2012 Future Medicine Ltd.