RCC occurs in sporadic (nonhereditary) and hereditary forms. Even though hereditary RCCs only consist of 3% to 5% of all RCCs, more syndromes are now being described. These syndromes have proven to be valuable in the development of targeted therapies for the treatment of all types of RCC (Zbar et al., 2007). RCC has been associated with hereditary and non-hereditary risk factors. These risk factors are described in Table 1.
Urol Nurs. 2012;32(4):182-190. © 2012 Society of Urologic Nurses and Associates