Effects of Analgesic and Anesthetic Medications on Lower Urinary Tract Function

Sammy E. Elsamra, MD; Pamela Ellsworth, MD, FAAP, FACS

Disclosures

Urol Nurs. 2012;32(2):60-67. 

In This Article

Effects of Analgesics on the Lower Urinary Tract

LUT function is complex, and the addition of medications to this intricate physiologic balance xmay result in LUT dysfunction. Post-operative urinary retention (POUR) has been reported to occur in 6% to 50% of patients (Malinovsky et al., 1998). Many surgically related risk factors for POUR have been described (type of anesthesia used, duration and location of surgery, post-operative use of opioid analgesia, and the administration of large volumes [greater than 500 ml] of perioperative intravenous fluids) (Koch, Grinberg, & Farley, 2006). Further, the use of orally ingested opioids in patients outside of the peri-operative setting has been shown to result in increased rates of urinary retention (Meyboom, Brodie-Meijer, Diemont, & van Puijenbroek, 1999). Other risk factors include underlying detrusor dysfunction or bladder outlet obstruction. The effect of analgesics, both narcotic and non-narcotic, and of anesthetics on the LUT will now be discussed.

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