Karen L. Krok; Andrés Cárdenas


Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;33(1):3-10. 

In This Article


Hepatic hydrothorax occurs in 5 to 10% of patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension. The entrance of fluid into the pleural space occurs when defects develop in the diaphragm. Medical management with salt restriction and diuretics is first-line therapy. Other treatments include thoracentesis, TIPS, VATS, and pleurodesis. Ultimately the only cure for hepatic hydrothorax is a liver transplant (see [Fig. 1]).