Review of Biologics in Children With Rheumatic Diseases

Shabina Habibi; Athimalaipet V Ramanan


Int J Clin Rheumatol. 2012;7(1):81-93. 

In This Article

Anti-IL-1 Blockade


Since IL-1 is the predominant cytokine involved in CAPS, therapies targeting this cytokine have shown promising results. A study on 18 patients with NOMID, with at least two of either urticarial rash, CNS symptoms or epiphyseal or patellar overgrowth on radiography, and active disease despite NSAIDs, corticosteroids or disease-modifying-antirheumatic drugs, when treated with anakinra, demonstrated disappearance of rash and conjunctivitis, and improvement of CNS symptoms such as headache after 6 months of therapy.[67] CSF pressure and white blood cell count improved, as did the leptomeningeal and cochlear lesions on MRI. Another study in ten patients demonstrated sustained efficacy for 26–42 months in the treatment of systemic inflammation, and in some cases neurologic involvement and growth parameters in patients with NOMID/CINCA.[68] Case reports have also demonstrated its efficacy in the management of TRAPS, sensory deafness in MWS, febrile crisis in HIDS and hydrocephalous in CINCA syndrome.[69–72]


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