The Role of Echocardiography in the Management of the Sources of Embolism

Roberta Esposito; Rosa Raia; Daniela De Palma; Ciro Santoro; Maurizio Galderisi


Future Cardiol. 2012;8(1):101-114. 

In This Article


The diagnosis of a cardioembolic source of stroke and/or transient ischemic attack is often uncertain and depends on the identification of potential cardiac sources of embolism in the absence of a significant primary cerebrovascular disease. TTE and in particular TEE are the first choice imaging modalities in this clinical setting in order to obtain appropriate diagnosis of potential embolic determinants such as cardiac thrombi, vegetations and tumors and to identify predisposing conditions, mainly PFO and aortic atherosclerosis. Echocardiography is also useful for the prevention of events in high-risk, asymptomatic patients. Decision making and recommendations for appropriate management for secondary and primary prevention of embolic events are largely based on echo findings.


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