Spinal Cord Stimulation for Long-term Treatment of Severe Angina Pectoris

What Does the Evidence Say?

Mats Börjesson; Paulin Andréll; Clas Mannheimer


Future Cardiol. 2011;7(6):825-833. 

In This Article

Patient Characteristics

Approximately 67–77% of the patients with refractory angina pectoris are men and the average age is 64–70 years (Table 1).[15–17] The majority of the patients have previously suffered from a myocardial infarction (64–71%) and have previously undergone a revascularization procedure (64–88%), according to the same studies.[12,15–17] The patients have usually suffered from angina for approximately 7–8 years before being considered as having refractory angina and consequently have been subjected to additional symptomatic treatment modalities, including transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS),[18] standard analgetics and/or spinal cord stimulation (SCS).[15,16] Studies have demonstrated that patients with refractory angina pectoris have surprisingly well preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), with only a subgroup of patients showing a low LVEF.[12,15–17] Previous reports have indicated that patients with refractory angina pectoris have a cardiac annual mortality of approximately 5%.[8,9,15,17]


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