The FIGO Recommendations on Terminologies and Definitions for Normal and Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

Ian S. Fraser, M.D.; Hilary O.D. Critchley, M.D.; Michael Broder, M.D.; Malcolm G. Munro, M.D.


Semin Reprod Med. 2011;29(5):383-390. 

In This Article


The methodology behind the recommendations presented here has been described in detail elsewhere.[2,3,7] Briefly, this involved prereading of series of discussion documents and the answering of a series of questions before the workshop in a Delphi process[9] by the participants in the Washington Expert Workshop in 2005. These issues were then addressed in detailed discussions and the questions revisited using an audience responder system, in the Delphi process manner. The recommendations received a high level of agreement. Subsequently these recommendations were published (with simultaneous publication in Fertility and Sterility and Human Reproduction),[2,3] and they were also tested in presentations at international meetings. Several areas of uncertainty were specifically addressed during discussions by a multicultural Working Group at the FIGO Cape Town Congress. This Working Group also assisted in designing questions to test the acceptability of the recommended terminologies, definitions, and classifications with a large multicultural audience in the Congress on Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Symposium using the Audience Responder System.[8]

The recommendations presented here are the result of an extensive discussion and testing process but should still be regarded as a flexible living document, scheduled for future review through the FIGO Menstrual Disorders Working Group and sessions at FIGO World Congresses.

If these recommendations continue to meet with wide approval, it is hoped they will be steadily incorporated into daily professional and community use and be translated into other languages. Journal editors will be encouraged to offer guidelines for the use of these terminologies and definitions in submitted articles.


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