The Biology, Pathology and Therapeutic Use of Prostaglandins in the Eye

Carol B Toris; Vikas Gulati


Clin Lipidology. 2011;6(5):577-591. 

In This Article

PG Receptors & Their Locations

Like local hormones or autacoids, prostanoids function close to the site of synthesis and are deactivated to inactive metabolites before moving into the circulation. The local action of PGs may stem from their poor ability to cross biological membranes.[15] They act locally in very low concentrations to produce profound physiological changes through receptor-mediated G-protein linked signaling pathways. The immediate effect of the appearance of PGs is a change in the rate of production of second messengers such as cAMP or Ca2+ and a change in the activation of a specific protein kinase. Three of five physiologically important prostanoids, PGD2, PGE2, PGF, have been detected in ocular tissue.[16] PG receptors and their associated mRNAs have been located in the trabecular meshwork, ciliary muscle and sclera. These are tissues of the aqueous humor outflow pathways. The location of PG receptors in these tissues provides strong evidence that endogenous PGs have a functional role in controlling the drainage of aqueous humor out of the eye.

Endogenous PGs interact with a variety of receptors. PGD2 preferentially interacts with subtypes DP1 and DP2; PGE2 interacts with subtypes EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4; and PGF preferentially interacts with one subtype, PGF (FP). The naturally occurring PGs have lower receptor specificity as compared with their synthetic analogs.[17–19]


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