Towards a Brief Definition of Burnout Syndrome by Subtypes

Development of the "Burnout Clinical Subtypes Questionnaire" (BCSQ-12)

Jesús Montero-Marín; Petros Skapinakis; Ricardo Araya; Margarita Gili; Javier García-Campayo


Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 2011;9(74) 

In This Article

Abstract and Introduction


Background: Burnout has traditionally been described by means of the dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism and lack of eficacy from the "Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey" (MBI-GS). The "Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire" (BCSQ-12), comprising the dimensions of overload, lack of development and neglect, is proposed as a brief means of identifying the different ways this disorder is manifested. The aim of the study is to test the construct and criterial validity of the BCSQ-12.
Method: A cross-sectional design was used on a multi-occupational sample of randomly selected university employees (n = 826). An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed on half of the sample using the maximum likelihood (ML) method with varimax orthogonal rotation, while confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed on the other half by means of the ML method. ROC curve analysis was preformed in order to assess the discriminatory capacity of BCSQ-12 when compared to MBI-GS. Cut-off points were proposed for the BCSQ-12 that optimized sensitivity and specificity. Multivariate binary logistic regression models were used to estimate effect size as an odds ratio (OR) adjusted for sociodemographic and occupational variables. Contrasts for sex and occupation were made using Mann-Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis tests on the dimensions of both models.
Results: EFA offered a solution containing 3 factors with eigenvalues > 1, explaining 73.22% of variance. CFA presented the following indices: χ2 = 112.04 (p < 0.001), χ2/gl = 2.44, GFI = 0.958, AGFI = 0.929, RMSEA = 0.059, SRMR = 0.057, NFI = 0.958, NNFI = 0.963, IFI = 0.975, CFI = 0.974. The area under the ROC curve for 'overload' with respect to the 'exhaustion' was = 0.75 (95% CI = 0.71–0.79); it was = 0.80 (95% CI = 0.76–0.86) for 'lack of development' with respect to 'cynicism' and = 0.74 (95% CI = 0.70–0.78) for 'neglect' with respect to 'inefficacy'. The presence of 'overload' increased the likelihood of suffering from 'exhaustion' (OR = 5.25; 95% IC = 3.62–7.60); 'lack of development' increased the likelihood from 'cynicism' (OR = 6.77; 95% CI = 4.79–9.57); 'neglect' increased the likelihood from 'inefficacy' (OR = 5.21; 95% CI = 3.57–7.60). No differences were found with regard to sex, but there were differences depending on occupation.
Conclusions: Our results support the validity of the definition of burnout proposed in the BSCQ-12 through the brief differentiation of clinical subtypes.


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