Joannie Shen; Michael Johnston; Ron D Hays


Expert Rev Pharmacoeconomics Outcomes Res. 2011;11(4):447-453. 

In This Article


Phenotypical or pathophysiological biomarkers can be useful in providing relevant information in guiding treatment decisions. Several pathological and physiological biomarkers have been shown to predict risk of exacerbations.[63] However, no single biomarker has been recommended to assess asthma among all patients for all medications. Biomarkers of airway inflammation are becoming more widely available in clinical settings and can be considered when the differential diagnosis of asthma is difficult. They also provide objective measurements for asthma clinical trials. Characterization of patients' phenotype will probably become increasingly important in developing targeted therapies. For example, in treatments based on sputum eosinophils, measurements of exhaled nitric oxide have shown benefit in terms of fewer exacerbations or reduced medication requirements.[64,65] Clinical studies may collect biomarkers such as IgE, cortisol, urinary leukotrienes, exhaled nitric oxide and sputum esoinophils for supplementary information.


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