Protean Manifestations of Vitamin D Deficiency, Part 3

Association With Cardiovascular Disease and Disorders of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

David S.H. Bell, MD


South Med J. 2011;104(5):340-344. 

In This Article

Abstract and Introduction


Vitamin D deficiency is associated with the risk factors of inflammation, insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction, and left ventricular hypertrophy. As a result there is an increase in cardiovascular events (CVEs) associated with vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency itself or secondary hyperparathyroidism or both may be responsible for the increase in CVEs. Correction of vitamin D deficiency may decrease the incidence of CVEs. Vitamin D deficiency is also associated with Alzheimer disease, schizophrenia, depression, and chronic pain and muscle weakness. Vitamin D deficiency is early treated with oral vitamin D supplements which may improve the manifestations of the diseases associated with vitamin D deficiency.


Vitamin D deficiency is common and its manifestations protean. This article reviews the association of vitamin D deficiency with diseases of the cardiovascular and nervous systems.


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