Compliance with Recommendations for Prevention and Detection of Controlled-substance Diversion in Hospitals

Steven R. McClure; Brian C. O'Neal; Dennis Grauer; Rick J. Couldry; Allison R. King


Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2011;68(8):689-694. 

In This Article


The survey questions were designed to identify variances from the recommended practices, as reported by a national sample of pharmacy directors.

Initially, a pilot questionnaire was sent to pharmacists at three institutions to identify flaws and areas for improvement. The final survey consisted of 41 questions: 17 multiple-choice questions, 20 yes-or-no questions, and 4 questions about the recipients' institution (size, ownership, location, and name). Through an online survey website, the survey link was e-mailed in April 2009 to directors of pharmacy identified through the pharmacy residency listings on the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) website ( and the online member center of the University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) ( UHC is an alliance whose membership includes about 90% of the nation's nonprofit academic medical centers and about 250 affiliated hospitals. The initial e-mail described the research and provided the survey website link; two weeks later a reminder e-mail was sent. The survey remained open on the survey website for 30 days, and recipients were assured that their responses would be confidential.

Directors of pharmacy at ASHP-accredited residency sites were selected with the aim of gathering data from a group representing current health-system pharmacy practice. Members of UHC were surveyed with the intent of including pharmacists who work for academic medical centers. The survey instructed recipients who were not directly involved in detection diversion efforts to forward the survey to another person in their organization whom they knew to have such involvement.

The frequencies of reported use of surveyed practices were calculated by using descriptive statistics. Several questions allowed respondents to write comments; these were analyzed to determine if the responses were significant to the survey. Comparative data were analyzed using chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. SPSS for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) was used for data analysis. The a priori level of significance was 0.05.


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