European Society of Cardiology Heart Failure Association Standards for Delivering Heart Failure Care

Theresa A. McDonagh; Lynda Blue; Andrew L. Clark; Ulf Dahlström; Inger Ekman; Mitja Lainscak; Kenneth McDonald; Mary Ryder; Anna Strömberg; Tiny Jaarsma


Eur J Heart Fail. 2011;13(3):235-241. 

In This Article


An HF management programme setup as outlined here will be available to the HF patient wherever they enter their health-care journey. The subsequent management for most will be in primary care, mediated by an HF nurse and the primary care physician with cardiology liaison from secondary/tertiary care.

Some will need to attend HF clinics for more intensive management. Others will need access to more advanced HF care for consideration of device therapy and rarer and more rationed therapies such as cardiac transplantation and LV assist devices. Selected patients will require palliative care services.

The net result is actually a network of care pathways for the patient which fulfils the aim of improving their outcomes, regardless of their entry point to health care (see Figure 1 for a template of an ideal HF service/network).

Figure 1.

A schematic view of an integrated heart failure service (permission from Theresa McDonagh, British Society for Heart Failure).