Management of Neuroendocrine Tumors: Current and Future Therapies

Kjell E Öberg

Disclosures

Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab. 2011;6(1):49-62. 

In This Article

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of NETs is multimodal, based on clinical symptoms, hormone levels, radiological and nuclear imaging, and histological confirmation. Most patients with NETs have metastatic disease at diagnosis, with regional or distant metastasis observed in 50% of patients.[1] Initial metastases are usually noted in regional lymph nodes, then in the liver and finally in distant sites such as bone.[5] Large proportions of NETs are nonfunctioning and are diagnosed incidentally during an unrelated procedure. The clinical symptoms of functioning NETs generally arise after the tumor has metastasized to the liver.

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