European Consensus Statement on Diagnosis and Treatment of Adult ADHD: The European Network Adult ADHD

Sandra JJ Kooij; Susanne Bejerot; Andrew Blackwell; Herve Caci; Miquel Casas-Brugué; Pieter J Carpentier; Dan Edvinsson; John Fayyad; Karin Foeken; Michael Fitzgerald; Veronique Gaillac; Ylva Ginsberg; Chantal Henry; Johanna Krause; Michael B Lensing; Iris Manor; Helmut Niederhofer; Carlos Nunes-Filipe; Martin D Ohlmeier; Pierre Oswald; Stefano Pallanti; Artemios Pehlivanidis; Josep A Ramos-Quiroga; Maria Rastam; Doris Ryffel-Rawak; Steven Stes; Philip Asherson

Disclosures

BMC Psychiatry. 2010;10(69) 

In This Article

Conclusions

A summary of the main conclusions is listed in Table 1. ADHD persists in adults in the majority of subjects with significant psychosocial impairment and a high comorbidity rate leading to high levels of personal distress and a substantial economic burden for society if left unidentified and untreated. The lifetime persistence of symptoms and impairment of ADHD is the hallmark of this disorder in the majority of cases. Diagnosis should include extensive psychiatric work-up including a detailed account of the developmental history, both current and retrospective account of ADHD symptoms and impairment and associated co-morbidities, before starting treatment. To prevent underreporting of symptoms, external validation is desirable by collecting information from relevant informants. The panel recommends multimodal treatment, comprising of psychoeducation, pharmacotherapy, coaching and/or cognitive behavioural therapy; and ideally involving the adult patient's partner, family or close friends. Diagnostic and treatment services for adult ADHD should be established throughout Europe. European research into adult ADHD should be further developed in order to provide a better understanding of the way that ADHD presents from childhood until old age, to differentiate ADHD from common comorbidities and to improve treatment options.

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