Dopamine-containing neurons are found in the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area and hypothalamic nucleus. Nigrostriatal pathways with initiation, regulation and in the control of movements represent 80% of dopamine-containing neurons in the brain.[56,57] Dopamine-containing neurons from the hypothalamus projecting to the pituitary gland form the tuberoinfundibular pathway and act to suppress prolactin excretion.
Most of the side effects from metoclopramide result from its ability to easily cross the blood–brain barrier and are observed in up to 30% of patients.[59,60] Drowsiness, fatigue and lethargy are reported by 10% of patients. Metoclopramide can also worsen underlying depression. Blockade of central D2 receptors may cause extrapyramidal reactions as well as hyperprolactinemia.
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Cite this: Metoclopramide in the Treatment of Diabetic Gastroparesis - Medscape - Sep 01, 2010.