Robert P. Baughman, M.D.; Elyse E. Lower, M.D., Ph.D.; Adam H. Kaufman, M.D.


Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;31(4):452-462. 

In This Article


Ocular disease is an important manifestation of sarcoidosis. As in the other faces of sarcoidosis, patient presentation varies with ophthalmic disease. Eye involvement may sometimes be the first sign of sarcoidosis, or perhaps just one of many organs involved in patients with long-standing chronic disease. Because vision loss can occur in either the symptomatic or the totally asymptomatic patient, a close multidisciplinary management team must include an ophthalmologist as well as a clinician experienced with treating the systemic aspects of sarcoidosis. Because both cytotoxic immunosuppressive therapy and biologic agents targeted against TNF have improved the outcome of refractory sarcoidosis in general, these therapies should be considered in the treatment of chronic ocular sarcoidosis.