Urinary, Circulating, and Tissue Biomonitoring Studies Indicate Widespread Exposure to Bisphenol A

Laura N. Vandenberg; Ibrahim Chahoud; Jerrold J. Heindel; Vasantha Padmanabhan; Francisco J.R. Paumgartten; Gilbert Schoenfelder

Disclosures

Environmental Health Perspectives. 2010;118(8):1055-1070. 

In This Article

Salivary Measures of BPA

Like urine, saliva is a preferred bodily fluid for biomonitoring purposes because collection requires relatively noninvasive procedures. To date, studies that have examined saliva for BPA have focused on the effects of dental sealant application to BPA concentrations. Since the 1960s, BPA diglycidyl methacrylate has been used as a component of many dental restorative materials, including those used for sealing molars.

Six studies have measured BPA in saliva after dental sealant application, and all were able to detect BPA in the saliva of some of the individuals examined (Arenholt-Bindslev et al. 1999; Fung et al. 2000; Joskow et al. 2006; Olea et al. 1996; Sasaki et al. 2005; Zafra et al. 2002) (Table 2). These studies used different analytical methods and examined saliva collected at different points after sealant application. Although these studies provide interesting information about the dynamics of BPA leaching from sealants shortly after sealant placement (Vandenberg et al. 2007), they are less informative about the use of saliva as a matrix for biomonitoring of BPA. Joskow et al. (2006) measured BPA concentrations in saliva before any treatment, with a mean level of 0.3 ng/mL saliva; this concentration is much lower than that measured in urine (Table 1). Owing to the possibility of contamination with BPA leaching from dental materials, saliva does not seem to be a reliable biomonitoring tool for estimating systemic exposure to unconjugated BPA.

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