Chronic Kidney Disease in Primary Care

Duaine D. Murphree, MD; Sarah M. Thelen, MD


J Am Board Fam Med. 2010;23(4):542-550. 

In This Article


Knowledge of the risk factors for the development of chronic kidney disease is crucial to prevention of the disease process. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are the leading causes of chronic kidney disease; therefore, these risk factors must be tightly controlled in all patients. Glycemic and hypertensive control is discussed in more detail later in this review. In addition, medication lists should be reviewed closely with patients to ensure that any potentially nephrotoxic medications are being used appropriately and in correct dosages. In particular, over-the-counter medications should be evaluated for the potential of drug interactions and nephrotoxicity. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are notoriously nephrotoxic and physicians may underestimate their patient's usage of these medications unless they specifically inquire.