Travel-associated Dengue Surveillance — United States, 2006–2008

R Luce, DVM; A Rivera, MS; H Mohammed, PhD; KM Tomashek, MD; Dengue Br; J Lehman

Disclosures

Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report. 2010;59(23):715-719. 

In This Article

Abstract and Introduction

Introduction

Dengue is caused by four antigenically related viruses (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4). Dengue fever is endemic in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world, and in 2007 nearly 1 million cases were reported in the Americas alone. Dengue infections commonly occur among U.S. residents returning from travel to endemic areas (1–4) and are more prevalent than malaria among returning travelers from the Caribbean, South America, South Central Asia, and Southeast Asia.[5] This report summarizes information about dengue cases reported to CDC through two CDC-maintained passive surveillance systems: 1) the ArboNET surveillance system, a national CDC arboviral surveillance system maintained by CDC's Arboviral Diseases Branch and initially developed in response to the introduction of West Nile virus in the United States, and 2) a system maintained for decades by the CDC Dengue Branch (CDCDB), which collects information on all suspected dengue cases whose specimens are sent to the branch. During 2006–2008, a total of 1,125 unique reports were made to either ArboNET or CDCDB. Of these, the highest proportion of laboratory-confirmed and probable cases with known travel histories were in persons who reported travel to the Dominican Republic (121; 20%), Mexico (55; 9%), and India (43; 7%). Health-care providers should consider dengue in the differential diagnosis of patients with a history of travel to endemic areas within 14 days of fever onset.

Dengue cases are reported to ArboNET from state and metropolitan health departments. The dengue surveillance system at CDCDB receives reports of suspected dengue cases among U.S. travelers from clinicians and officials at state health departments, who forward patient specimens to CDC for diagnostic testing. Age, sex, birth date, and onset date are used to match cases reported to both systems, and duplicate cases are eliminated.

For both CDCDB and ArboNET, a case of laboratory-diagnosed infection (i.e., probable or laboratory-confirmed) in a resident of one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia (DC) who traveled in the 14 days before symptom onset to a dengue-endemic area outside the 50 states. Because autochthonous dengue transmission in the continental United States is uncommon, all cases reported to ArboNET or CDC are classified as travel-associated unless they are identified specifically as locally acquired.

Cases submitted to ArboNET are classified as probable or laboratory-confirmed by the reporting jurisdiction; specimens submitted to CDC are classified as probable or laboratory-confirmed based on testing conducted at CDCDB. Probable cases are defined by a single immunoglobulin M (IgM) specimen in late acute phase or convalescent phase of illness. Laboratory-confirmed cases are defined by a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test result or by viral isolation.

During 2006–2008, 57 duplicate reports were reported to both ArboNET and CDCDB and were assigned to CDCDB. During that period, ArboNET received reports of 596 cases, of which 468 (79%) were reported as probable and 128 (21%) were reported as laboratory-confirmed.

During 2006–2008, CDCDB received a total of 529 specimens from 524 patients in 41 states and DC for dengue testing (153 in 2006, 272 in 2007, and 104 in 2008). Of the 529 specimens, 136 (26%) resulted in a diagnosis of dengue. Among those 136 specimens, 106 (78%) had elevated antidengue IgM antibodies (probable recent dengue infection), and 30 (22%) had a dengue virus identified in serum by either reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or viral isolation (confirmed acute dengue infection). Serotype specific data were available for those 30 cases, of which 14 were DENV-1, seven were DENV-2, six were DENV-3, and three were DENV-4. Results for 162 (31%) specimens were classified as indeterminate because blood samples were not collected within specified timeframes. Among the 215 patients (41% of all specimens received) whose laboratory results were negative (RT-PCR or IgM negative, or no virus isolated), 38 (18%) had evidence of past flavivirus infection. In addition, the amount of serum provided for 16 (3%) of the patients was insufficient for testing, and in one sample the infecting virus could not be identified.

The 596 case reports were received by ArboNET from 25 states; more than half (57%) were reported from three states: 178 (30%) from New York, 99 (17%) from Florida, and 61 (10%) from Texas. Among the 136 dengue-positive cases identified by CDCDB, 42 (31%) were submitted from New York, 17 (13%) from Massachusetts, 10 (7%) from Arizona, and 10 (7%) from Georgia. Males accounted for 52% of all cases reported to ArboNET and 54% of positive specimens to CDCDB. Median age of patients was similar for both systems; 40 years and 42 years, respectively.

Of the 732 confirmed and probable cases from ArboNET and CDCDB combined (596 cases from ArboNET and 136 positive cases from CDC), history of travel was reported by 649 persons (89%), among whom country-specific travel information was available for 613 (95%). By region, 262 persons (43%) had traveled to the Caribbean; 208 (34%) to Mexico, Central America, or South America; 131 (21%) to Asia and the Pacific; and 12 (2%) to Africa. By country, 121 persons (20%) reported travel to the Dominican Republic, 55 (9%) to Mexico, and 43 (7%) to India during the 14 days before illness onset (Table 1). One laboratory-confirmed case reported to ArboNET from Texas in 2008 was characterized as "not imported," with no travel history, and might have represented autochthonous dengue transmission.

For ArboNET cases, the type of clinical syndrome was recorded in 596 cases; 429 (72%) were categorized as uncomplicated fever, 95 (16%) as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, 56 (9%) as other syndrome or unknown, and 16 (3%) as dengue with hemorrhage (Table 2). For CDCDB cases, clinical syndrome was recorded for 54 (40%) of 136 laboratory-diagnosed cases; 32 (59%) were classified as dengue fever, four (7%) cases as dengue hemorrhagic fever, and no cases of dengue shock syndrome. The most frequently reported signs and symptoms included 77 (57%) cases with fever, 57 (42%) with headache, and 55 (40%) with body ache. Among the 136 CDCDB cases, 27 (20%) included at least one hemorrhagic symptom (e.g., petechiae, purpura, hemoptysis, hematemesis, hematuria, vaginal bleeding, bleeding gums, or epistaxis). A higher proportion of cases submitted to ArboNET (292; 49%) resulted in hospitalization compared with CDCDB cases (26; 19%). One travel-associated dengue fatality was laboratory confirmed by CDCDB.

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