Altitude and the Heart: Is Going High Safe for Your Cardiac Patient?

John P. Higgins, MD, MPhil; Troy Tuttle, MS; Johanna A. Higgins, MD


Am Heart J 

In This Article


A search of the English language scientific literature was performed primarily by searching the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and Google for the period 1976 to the present. Keywords used in the search included "altitude, hypoxia, physiology, exercise, heart disease, high-altitude pulmonary edema, and hypobaric hypoxia." The bibliographies of articles from the above query were also searched for relevant articles; links on Web sites containing published articles were searched for pertinent information. Articles that originated in top-ranking medical journals were given priority, as were articles that were practical, accurate, and provided in-depth discussions of the physiologic effects of activity at actual altitude. No extramural funding was used to support this work. The authors are solely responsible for the design and conduct of this study, all study analyses, and drafting and editing of the paper.