INVEST Revisited: Review of Findings from the International Verapamil SR–Trandolapril Study

Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff; Eileen M Handberg; Giuseppe Mancia; Qian Zhou; Annette Champion; Udo F Legler; Carl J Pepine


Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2009;7(11):1329-1340. 

In This Article


INVEST enrolled a total of 22,576 patients from 862 sites in 14 countries between September 1997 and December 2000.[25] Investigators were practitioners in the ambulatory care setting across all practice types (academic, private practice and community health departments), making this a clinically relevant assessment of the implementation of a BP protocol with broad applicability.

Baseline Characteristics

Overall, the majority of patients were women (52%) with a mean age of 66 years. Approximately a third of patients were older than 70 years and more than 2000 patients were over 85 years old, making this one of the largest randomized subgroups to be reported among older patients. The population was racially diverse, with 36% Hispanic[26] and 13% black. Baseline characteristics were very similar in both treatment strategies and generally reflected an elderly cohort with chronic CAD.[25,27,28] Prior MI was present in approximately a third, two-thirds had angina, and over a quarter had diabetes. Mean BP among those using antihypertensive drugs was 149/86 mmHg and among those untreated, 159/93 mmHg. On average, patients were overweight (mean BMI: 29 kg/m2), with additional risk factors for cardiovascular events. Baseline characteristics are summarized in Table 1 for the overall population and various subpopulations. Although the entire INVEST population would be considered high risk (age > 50 years, hypertension and CAD), the study had many high-risk subgroups at baseline, including 6400 patients who also had diabetes,[29] 7218 patients with a history of MI[30] and 2969 patients with class II or III obesity.[31]


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