Managing Labor and Delivery of the Diabetic Mother

Hen Y. Sela, MD; Itamar Raz, MD; Uriel Elchalal, MD

Disclosures

Expert Rev of Obstet Gynecol. 2009;4(5):547-554. 

In This Article

Increasing Prevalence of Diabetes in Pregnancy

The exact incidence of GDM is unknown. The reported incidence in the literature is variable, and depends to a great extent on the characteristics of the population considered and the criteria used for the diagnosis. The risk for GDM is parallel to the risk for Type 2 DM within the general population.[7,8,9,10] Other risk factors include previous GDM, obesity, previous macrosomic newborn, familial history of DM, high parity and older age.[8,9] A Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health, published in London in 2005, which evaluated pregnancy in women with Type 1 and Type 2 DM during the years 2002-2003, it was reported that Type 1 DM accounted for 0.27% of all births, or one in every 364 births, and the prevalence of Type 2 DM accounted for 0.10% of all births, or one in every 955 births.[3]

The incidence of GDM reported in the USA ranges between 2 and 7%.[7,11,12] Worldwide prevalence is estimated to be between 2.8% (in Washington, DC, USA) and 22% (in Sardinia, Italy).[7] The incidence rates of GDM are increasing worldwide,[13,14] reflecting the increased prevalence of Type 2 DM and obesity.[15,16]

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