Methyl Aminolevulinate-PDT for Actinic Keratoses and Superficial Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers

B. Ortiz-Policarpio, MD; H. Lui, MD, FRCPC

Disclosures

Skin Therapy Letter. 2009;14(6) 

In This Article

Superficial BCCs

The recent British Photodermatology Group guidelines for topical PDT concluded MAL-PDT to be effective for sBCC.[9] In an attempt to compare clearance rates and cosmetic outcomes between MAL-PDT (n=60) and double freeze-thaw cryotherapy (n=58) in sBCC, a 5-year European randomized trial was performed in 118 patients. This protocol used MAL applied for 3 hours at 75J/cm2 with noncoherent red light (570-670nm) for 1 session. Partially treated patients at 3 months were given 2 further MAL-PDT sessions (n=20) or repeat cryotherapy (n=16). Complete clinical response rates after 3 months' follow-up for MAL-PDT were 97% of 102 lesions, while that of cryotherapy was 95% of 98 lesions; the difference between these 2 treatments was not statistically significant. At 5 years' follow-up, clearance rates were similar for the MAL-PDT group (75%) and cryotherapy (74%). Of the lesions initially cleared with MAL-PDT, 22% had recurred vs. 20% after cryotherapy. Cosmetic outcome was judged superior following PDT (87% vs. 49%).[17] Double MAL-PDT treatment cycles for 'difficult-to-treat' sBCC (and nBCC) were reported by 2 prospective multicenter studies. This included recurrent, large-sized lesions and/or those occurring on the mid-face or ears. In the first study, 87% of patients (n=94) had 'difficult-to-treat' lesions occurring on the face or scalp. The protocol was a single cycle of MAL-PDT (MAL 3h, 75J/cm2, 570-670nm or 580-740nm, 50-200mW/cm2) involving 2 treatment sessions 1 week apart. For partially treated lesions after 3 months' follow-up, a second cycle was repeated. Complete clearance at 3 months was 85% for sBCC after histological review (75% for nBCC). After 2 years, the recurrence rate was 22% for sBCC (14% for nBCC). Ninety-four percent of patients were assessed to have a good to excellent cosmetic outcome.[18] In the second study, efficacy, safety, and cosmetic outcomes were examined in 95 patients with BCCs that were 'difficult-to-treat' and at high risk for surgical complications. A total of 148 BCCs (sBCC and nBCC) were treated with the same PDT protocol (MAL 3h, 75J/cm2, 570-670nm, 50-200mW/cm2) with re-treatment for non-complete response lesions at 3 months. Overall, histologically-confirmed lesion complete response rate was 89% (93% sBCC and 82% nBCC) after 3 months' follow-up. Fifteen percent of lesions had histologically confirmed recurrence within 2 years increasing to 20% within 4 years. Ninety-seven percent of patients rated their cosmetic outcome as good to excellent at 3 months.[19]

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