Measles Vaccination: New Strategies and Formulations

Rory D de Vries; Koert J Stittelaar; Albert DME Osterhaus; Rik L de Swart


Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008;7(8):1215-1223. 

In This Article

Inactivated Vaccine

Large-scale vaccination programs against measles started in the 1960s, with formalin- or Tween-ether-inactivated whole-virus vaccines adjuvanted with alum. Vaccination resulted in high seroconversion rates but neutralizing antibody titers were short lasting, necessitating multiple immunizations.[1] Furthermore, this vaccine was incapable of inducing cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses, as demonstrated in a macaque model.[2] A substantial number of children vaccinated with these inactivated vaccines developed enhanced disease upon natural infection with measles virus (MV), referred to as atypical measles. This disease was characterized mainly by a prolonged and higher fever, atypical rash and severe pneumonitis.[3,4] It is now believed that strong but nonprotective anamnestic MV-specific CD4+ T-cell responses resulted in infiltration of inflammatory cells into the airways. In addition, the lack of affinity maturation of the MV-specific antibody response may have resulted in airway hypersensitivity responses.[2,5] Owing to these major adverse effects, the use of inactivated measles vaccines was discontinued in 1967.


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