Measles Vaccination: New Strategies and Formulations

Rory D de Vries; Koert J Stittelaar; Albert DME Osterhaus; Rik L de Swart

Disclosures

Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008;7(8):1215-1223. 

In This Article

Inactivated Vaccine

Large-scale vaccination programs against measles started in the 1960s, with formalin- or Tween-ether-inactivated whole-virus vaccines adjuvanted with alum. Vaccination resulted in high seroconversion rates but neutralizing antibody titers were short lasting, necessitating multiple immunizations.[1] Furthermore, this vaccine was incapable of inducing cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses, as demonstrated in a macaque model.[2] A substantial number of children vaccinated with these inactivated vaccines developed enhanced disease upon natural infection with measles virus (MV), referred to as atypical measles. This disease was characterized mainly by a prolonged and higher fever, atypical rash and severe pneumonitis.[3,4] It is now believed that strong but nonprotective anamnestic MV-specific CD4+ T-cell responses resulted in infiltration of inflammatory cells into the airways. In addition, the lack of affinity maturation of the MV-specific antibody response may have resulted in airway hypersensitivity responses.[2,5] Owing to these major adverse effects, the use of inactivated measles vaccines was discontinued in 1967.

Comments

3090D553-9492-4563-8681-AD288FA52ACE
Comments on Medscape are moderated and should be professional in tone and on topic. You must declare any conflicts of interest related to your comments and responses. Please see our Commenting Guide for further information. We reserve the right to remove posts at our sole discretion.
Post as:

processing....