Treating the Climacteric Symptoms in Indian Women With an Integrated Approach to Yoga Therapy: A Randomized Control Study

Ritu Chattha, MSc; Nagarathna Raghuram, MD, FRCP; Padmalatha Venkatram, FRCOG, MRCPI; Nagendra R. Hongasandra, ME, PhD


Menopause. 2008;15(5):862-870. 

In This Article


Figure 1 describes the trial profile. Of 120 participants, there were total 12 dropouts, 5 in the yoga group and 7 in the control group due to inability to come to the venue regularly (attendance >75% considered regular) because of (1) husband's ill health, (2) transfer to another city, and (3) unexpected events in the family. The analysis was done for a total of 108 participants (54 in each group). The trial profile shows that there were only 12 dropouts from the initial group of 120 participants.

Trial profile.

Table 2 shows the demographic data. Maximum participation was from age group 46 to 50 years. Of the total participants, 87.76% were housewives, and those who worked were either high school teachers or bank officials.

The baseline values were not significantly different between the yoga and control groups (P>0.01) for all the variables including age, serum FSH, body mass index, psychological, somatic, vasomotor, perceived stress, and extroversion except neuroticism (higher scores in the yoga group).

The scores in this study for psychological (6.18 ± 3.48), somatic (6.16 ± 4.25), and vasomotor (4.41 ± 1.79) were much lower compared with those for the Scottish women (N= 50) with 12.33 ± 6.15, 3.45 ± 2.44, and 2.31 ± 2.04 for the three factors, respectively.[22] The values for extroversion and neuroticism in our population were also found to be much lower (10.77 ± 3.40 and 10.51 ± 4.59, respectively) than the normal scores (26.08 ± 8.55 and 17.37 ± 10.10, respectively) in American women. The score for PSS[24] is higher in the present study group (17.52 ± 6.38) than the normative values (12.60 ± 6.10) for American housewives.

There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between groups in the vasomotor factor, a marginally significant difference (P=0.06) in psychological factor, and no change in the somatic component ( Table 3 ). Within-group analysis showed significant improvement in all three factors in the yoga group (P<0.001) and for only the psychological factor (P<0.05) in the control group. Effect sizes were higher in the yoga group for all factors.

There was a significantly greater decrease in the yoga group compared with controls (between-group analysis) in PSS scores (P<0.001) ( Table 4 ). The magnitude of stress reduction was greater in the yoga group (effect size=1.10) than in the control group (effect size=0.27).

There was a greater magnitude of change in neuroticism in the yoga group (effect size = 0.43) than in the control group (effect size = 0.21), with significant differences between groups (P<0.05) ( Table 5 ). Within-group analysis showed a highly significant decrease (P<0.001) in the yoga group and no change in the control group. There was no significant change in extroversion in either group.

There was a positive correlation between FSH and age and a negative correlation between FSH and extroversion on the EPI; anxiety and depression on the GCS were positively correlated with PSS and neuroticism on the EPI; somatic symptoms on the GCS positively correlated with PSS scores, neuroticism, FSH, and age; and vasomotor symptoms significantly correlated with PSS scores and neuroticism ( Table 6 ).


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